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History of Syria

General information

Damascus Ma'loula


Homs Palmyra

Hama Apamea

Sweida shahba

Daraa Bosra

Latakia Ugarit



Art in Amrit

Azar Vaults 

Amrit Ruins

Tal al kazal

Water Tunnels


Deir Ezzor Mari









Water Tunnels    The stone Wall   Kherbet Allebneh  The Human Settlement 

 Ramat Al- Bassah / Hamad Land /     Tal Almontar – Tabet Alhamam  Samerian Hill 

 Tal Leha

Water Tunnels

The digs , in / 1992 – 1993 / , brought out the existence of nets of water tunnels of high importance , and refers to an excellent civil level . These tunnel are distributed among the residental institutions and the port institutions . Part of them , is for fresh water , whereas the other is for sewage . A part of the tunnels is covered by stones and mud . The other has a frieze on one side, and , on the other side , there is a stand where a fictile cover rests .


The stone Wall

As a result of the digs in 1993 , a part of the wall had been bared . It measures : / 112 m / long and / 170 cm / wide . It is built of big sand stones , paved without any cement , inconsistent in order to stick together . It is nearly of the same size and from the same site .

Also , an old Greek writing of bad sculpturing near the snake's spring . It mentions the temple of the sun . So , there are two temples in Amrit .


 Kherbet Allebneh

It is about 1500 m far to the east of Amrit , and considered a suburb . No scientific digs had occurred in it , but it contains a lot of clay which goes back to the ( 3rd – 4th ) century B.C . As well as residental institutions .


The Human Settlement

The settlement of Akkar plain centers on three major sites . They are tal  Akkar ( south of the southern great river ) , Tal Kazal and tal Jamous ( north of the southern great river ) each site looks down upon a part of a plain edged by the great river and its main branch ( the bride river ) , and each one is about ( 15 – 20 km ) far from the other . The other sites are divided into two groups :

-  four medium sites have a specific function ( the observation of roads ) . They are tal Frash , Safroun , Bsisah , and Mandra .

-  Small sites gathered , especially , around Tal Kazal , such as Tal-Zbieb , Samerian , leha , and , and Abo Obied . They form with Safroun a quasi – perfect circle .

It is obvious that this net , which is busy by archeological sites , was not settled progressively or regularly , but there were three periods of settlement , which appear clearly : Byzantium era , Hellenistic era , and the end of the 30th century and beginning of 20th century B.C .

It's obvious that the rarity of fictile findings which go back to the 1st half of the 30th century B.C , although the three major hills were settled at that time , certainly since a long time ( in Araka ) , the levels of the end of the 30th century B.C are , nearly , about ( 20 m ) high above the hill base , and in Tal Jamous is at about ( 15 m ) .

The matter isn't decidedness as for the secondary sites , the muchness of material ( clay ) as for the old third Bronze , especially , the fourth , refers to the beginning of the importance of the plain and the intensified settlement .

The area works as congenial and cultural unity . The pottery , supposing that , doesn't differ from one site to the other , and bears local and distinctive characteristics , and is similar in the way of making , the forms , the used magma , and the gangues . It is similar to the imported pottery from the internal Syria which exists , despite its rarity , over nearly all the sites .

The area continued its progress , especially the condesation of the populated spots , at the end of 4th old Bronze .

Small sites were added in the mid bronze ( Tal Adas . and Kbiebah ) , and in second mid bronze ( Akdou ) , it reached its atmost residental condensity . Then  this progress stopped  at the middle of the 20th century B.C . where we see that the modern bronze age is of less representation , excluding Tal-Kazal, a few hills ( Bsisah , Leha , Zbieb , Samerian ) is well connected with the results of Tal Arka's digs , and it is the same as for the Metal age .

We find the rarity of the gathered material during the digs , such as the red paint which is distinctive in Araka , and the perghami pottery or the Cyperian imports which are very clear in Tal Kazal , whereas we don't find that in most sites despite its closeness to each other . Maybe , that was because of the destruction and migration which were caused by the AsSyrian invasion in / 740 / B.C . ( this is confirmed by the teats and the 15 m burning level in Tal Akkar ) , and this caused a localization of the area over Tal Kazal .

The data concerning the Metal age are still partial , and the same for the Hellenistic and Byzantium era . Moreover , the gathered material, during the surface dig, regardless of its plentiness , is generally very partial and kept very bad . The dating of that depended on comparisons between Arka and Hama . As Mr.Talman says : ( the chime of the obtained results , till now , assures , as it seems to us , the existence a fairly original and cultural community compared with the simple cultural level of Akkar plain ).

This area had been able , at the end of the 30th century B.C , by a suitable conditions to play an important role informing the civilizations of the Mid Bronze age of eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea whether in keeping or activating the culture because of the suitable conditions . From here , we see that the continuous digs , now , will reveal the history of this area clearly .


 Ramat Al- Bassah / Hamad Land /


Pre-history ages were as far unknown , in the south of Tartous , despite the richness of the area , until Mr. M-Dunand and Mr. L-Duberet made an archaeologic digs . It noticed the existence of some stone axes which go back to the Asholy era , especially across Al-Abrash river . Then , in 1976 , Mr.Jane Saban found a site near Yahmour called / Ramat Al-Bassah / Hamad land / , rich of polished flint pieces. Then the geomorphologic co-expedition / French – Syria / , in 1989 , came and showed the variety and richness of the Balyotic Age in / Al-Ghamka valley , Al-Biad land , Beit Kamonah – Akdo –Arab valley , Al-Abrash bed , Samerian / . It assured that Ramat al-Bassah is / 55 m / high , and occupies an area of / 5600 m / sloping toward the west and covered by pebbles and flat ovate flints . At / 40 m / deep , brashes , stones , and axes were found numerously . They are double face and placed horizontally . The area needs a regular and quick dig for fear of agricultural feats .

The primary results assure that man had occupied this site for a long time during the near Asholy era / 1000 – 5200000 / B.C .Probably,this is because of   the existence of a spring of water near it , and its nearness to the sea . Its materials are kept in Tartous museum .

The references books :

- The study of / the settlement and life environment in Al-Abrash river / , especially the Bronze Age / 1977 – 1978 / by Jane sabon .

- Geomorphologic expedition – Pre-history studies of Tartous / 1989 / , Dr.Sultan Mheisen , Paul San Laval , Jack Bisenson , Lauren Kopland .


Tal Almontar – Tabet Alhamam


It is / 20 km / to the south of Tartous . It is considered one the important archaeologic hills throughout the historical ages , a branch from Arwad , and a station of the great trade roads which lead to Arwad coast where a typical port was built on the beach with an artificial stone mole , built by paved stones which appear clearly in the water , and its entrance gets on with the movement of the marine streams . At one time , the human residence of the site was bigger than the hill's area itself , and part of this archaeologic area is covered by Almontar village . The digs , which were done by the Syrian expedition on the behalf of the Eastern Institute from Chicago University , have proved the existence some brickbats , coins ,and a group of lanterns which go back to the ( Byzantium – Roman ) era , but with no index to the existence of residental buildings . Also , the Greek were spread over a big area of tabet Alhamam and its proximities , even before the invasion of Alexandare. The remains of this era building were found with a lot of local or imported fictile pieces , even though a lot of its stones were transported by boats to Arwad until recent era . It , also , refers that the area had flourished in the Iron Age , and introduced a pretty good group of fictile pots , but the ruins of the the Bronze Age seems little or its remains are located inside the hill which the expedition doesn't reach it yet . Whereas , these remains appeared in Almontar village in addition to the existence of some flint stones which go back to the modern stone age .

It is confirmative that this hill contains , in its layers , a very old city which played an important role in the events of the region , and a linkup between Arwad coast and interior Syria . Maybe , it was Simira ( Somor ) city . Yet , the progressive scientific digs , in Tal Kazal and the area , will reveal the truth, end doubts, and allow the determination of the real site of old Simira .

The Reference books :

- The Syrian expedition – Chicago university .

- The study of Homs gap – Talman .

- The Phoenician expedition – Earnest Rynan / 1860 / .


Samerian Hill


It is about / 4 km / far from Tabet Alhamam and / 1 km / far from Samerian village which gave it its name .

It has an elliptical form , and it spreads about / 200 m / from south to North and / 150 m / from East to West . Its peak is covered by an Arabic cemetery.Its layers contain residental stages which appear clearly and go back to the Bronze Age / Old – Middle / , and Byzantium and Hellenist ruins .

Tal Leha

It is to the West of Tal Kazal . It is thought to be the port of Simira city where  boats were reaching it.But the silts of Al-Abrash river , Samerian river , Albared river , and the Great river , led to the decline of the sea . It is over topped by an Islamic cemetery , and , on its versant , there is a Mameluke wall.

Mr.Talman , the archaeologist , had frequented the area in / 1987 / , and made an exploration making use of a hole resulted by the transportation of soil . His work was in the ( 2nd – 3rd ) old bronze layers / 2800 – 2600 B.C / .

Consequently , he reached the base level of the land and got a good fictile group which is kept in Tartous museum .

In the northern half of the dig area , a semi-circular storehouse , which goes back to the ( 1st – 2nd ) Mid – bronze age , had been found . Whereas , in the other half , a strate-graphy hierarchy had been found , and spreads from the 2nd Mid-Bronze Age to the 3rd old Bronze Age .

-( 7,67 – 8.15 m ) levels of ashes and red soil from the 3rd Old Bronze Age .

- ( 8.18 – 9.80 / 985 m ) . The levels of the 4th Old Bronze Age .

- ( 9.80 – 10.20 / 10.40 m ) The levels of the 1st Mid Bronze Age .

The Reference books :

- The study of Homs gap – Talman .



1-Art in Amrit The coins of Amrit The Religion 

 2-Amrit Ruins The Temple   Amrit Hill   The Rock House   The Mauseleums

  3- Azar Vaults Al-Buzzak Tower Al-Buzzak Tower  Rom  Al-Zaha     The Port 

4-Water Tunnels The stone Wall   Kherbet Allebneh  The Human Settlement

 5-Tal Kazal 

 Ramat Al- Bassah / Hamad Land /Tal Almontar – Tabet Alhamam Samerian Hill

 Tal Leha 


Art in Amrit

Azar Vaults 

Amrit Ruins

Tal al kazal

Water Tunnels



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