Water Tunnels The stone
Allebneh The Human
Bassah / Hamad Land / Tal
Almontar Tabet Alhamam Samerian
The digs ,
in / 1992 1993 / , brought out the existence of nets of water tunnels
of high importance , and refers to an excellent civil level . These
tunnel are distributed among the residental institutions and the port
institutions . Part of them , is for fresh water , whereas the other is
for sewage . A part of the tunnels is covered by stones and mud . The
other has a frieze on one side, and , on the other side , there is a
stand where a fictile cover rests .
result of the digs in 1993 , a part of the wall had been bared . It
measures : / 112 m / long and / 170 cm / wide . It is built of big sand
stones , paved without any cement , inconsistent in order to stick
together . It is nearly of the same size and from the same site .
Also , an
old Greek writing of bad sculpturing near the snake's spring . It
mentions the temple of the sun . So , there are two temples in Amrit .
about 1500 m far to the east of Amrit , and considered a suburb . No
scientific digs had occurred in it , but it contains a lot of clay which
goes back to the ( 3rd 4th ) century B.C . As well as residental
settlement of Akkar plain centers on three major sites . They are tal Akkar
( south of the southern great river ) , Tal Kazal and tal Jamous ( north
of the southern great river ) each site looks down upon a part of a
plain edged by the great river and its main branch ( the bride river ) ,
and each one is about ( 15 20 km ) far from the other . The other
sites are divided into two groups :
medium sites have a specific function ( the observation of roads ) .
They are tal Frash , Safroun , Bsisah , and Mandra .
sites gathered , especially , around Tal Kazal , such as Tal-Zbieb ,
Samerian , leha , and , and Abo Obied . They form with Safroun a quasi
perfect circle .
obvious that this net , which is busy by archeological sites , was not
settled progressively or regularly , but there were three periods of
settlement , which appear clearly : Byzantium
era , Hellenistic era , and the end of the 30th century and
beginning of 20th century B.C .
obvious that the rarity of fictile findings which go back to the 1st
half of the 30th century B.C , although the three major hills
were settled at that time , certainly since a long time ( in Araka ) ,
the levels of the end of the 30th century B.C are , nearly ,
about ( 20 m ) high above the hill base , and in Tal Jamous is at about
( 15 m ) .
isn't decidedness as for the secondary sites , the muchness of material
( clay ) as for the old third Bronze , especially , the fourth , refers
to the beginning of the importance of the plain and the intensified
works as congenial and cultural unity . The pottery , supposing that ,
doesn't differ from one site to the other , and bears local and
distinctive characteristics , and is similar in the way of making , the
forms , the used magma , and the gangues . It is similar to the imported
pottery from the internal Syria which exists , despite its rarity , over
nearly all the sites .
continued its progress , especially the condesation of the populated
spots , at the end of 4th old Bronze .
sites were added in the mid bronze ( Tal Adas . and Kbiebah ) , and in
second mid bronze ( Akdou ) , it reached its atmost residental
condensity . Then this progress stopped at the middle of the 20th
century B.C . where we see that the modern bronze age is of less
representation , excluding Tal-Kazal, a few hills ( Bsisah , Leha ,
Zbieb , Samerian ) is well connected with the results of Tal Arka's digs
, and it is the same as for the Metal age .
the rarity of the gathered material during the digs , such as the red
paint which is distinctive in Araka , and the perghami pottery or the
Cyperian imports which are very clear in Tal Kazal , whereas we don't
find that in most sites despite its closeness to each other . Maybe ,
that was because of the destruction and migration which were caused by
the AsSyrian invasion in / 740 / B.C . ( this is confirmed by the teats
and the 15 m burning level in Tal Akkar ) , and this caused a
localization of the area over Tal Kazal .
concerning the Metal age are still partial , and the same for the
Hellenistic and Byzantium era . Moreover , the gathered material, during
the surface dig, regardless of its plentiness , is generally very
partial and kept very bad . The dating of that depended on comparisons
between Arka and Hama . As Mr.Talman says : ( the chime of the obtained
results , till now , assures , as it seems to us , the existence a
fairly original and cultural community compared with the simple cultural
level of Akkar plain ).
had been able , at the end of the 30th century B.C , by a
suitable conditions to play an important role informing the
civilizations of the Mid Bronze age of eastern coast of the
Mediterranean sea whether in keeping or activating the culture because
of the suitable conditions . From here , we see that the continuous digs
, now , will reveal the history of this area clearly .
Bassah / Hamad Land /
Pre-history ages were as far unknown , in the south of Tartous , despite
the richness of the area , until Mr. M-Dunand and Mr. L-Duberet made an
archaeologic digs . It noticed the existence of some stone axes which go
back to the Asholy era , especially across Al-Abrash river . Then , in
1976 , Mr.Jane Saban found a site near Yahmour called / Ramat Al-Bassah
/ Hamad land / , rich of polished flint pieces. Then the geomorphologic
co-expedition / French Syria / , in 1989 , came and showed the variety
and richness of the Balyotic Age in / Al-Ghamka valley , Al-Biad land ,
Beit Kamonah Akdo Arab valley , Al-Abrash bed , Samerian / . It
assured that Ramat al-Bassah is / 55 m / high , and occupies an area of
/ 5600 m / sloping toward the west and covered by pebbles and flat ovate
flints . At / 40 m / deep , brashes , stones , and axes were found
numerously . They are double face and placed horizontally . The area
needs a regular and quick dig for fear of agricultural feats .
primary results assure that man had occupied this site for a long time
during the near Asholy era / 1000 5200000 / B.C .Probably,this is
because of the existence of a spring of water near it , and its
nearness to the sea . Its materials are kept in Tartous museum .
references books :
study of / the settlement and life environment in Al-Abrash river / ,
especially the Bronze Age / 1977 1978 / by Jane sabon .
Geomorphologic expedition Pre-history studies of Tartous / 1989 / ,
Dr.Sultan Mheisen , Paul San Laval , Jack Bisenson , Lauren Kopland .
Almontar Tabet Alhamam
It is / 20
km / to the south of Tartous . It is considered one the important
archaeologic hills throughout the historical ages , a branch from Arwad
, and a station of the great trade roads which lead to Arwad coast where
a typical port was built on the beach with an artificial stone mole ,
built by paved stones which appear clearly in the water , and its
entrance gets on with the movement of the marine streams . At one time ,
the human residence of the site was bigger than the hill's area itself ,
and part of this archaeologic area is covered by Almontar village . The
digs , which were done by the Syrian expedition on the behalf of the
Eastern Institute from Chicago University , have proved the existence
some brickbats , coins ,and a group of lanterns which go back to the (
Byzantium Roman ) era , but with no index to the existence of
residental buildings . Also , the Greek were spread over a big area of
tabet Alhamam and its proximities , even before the invasion of
Alexandare. The remains of this era building were found with a lot of
local or imported fictile pieces , even though a lot of its stones were
transported by boats to Arwad until recent era . It , also , refers that
the area had flourished in the Iron Age , and introduced a pretty good
group of fictile pots , but the ruins of the the Bronze Age seems little
or its remains are located inside the hill which the expedition doesn't
reach it yet . Whereas , these remains appeared in Almontar village in
addition to the existence of some flint stones which go back to the
modern stone age .
confirmative that this hill contains , in its layers , a very old city
which played an important role in the events of the region , and a
linkup between Arwad coast and interior Syria . Maybe , it was Simira (
Somor ) city . Yet , the progressive scientific digs , in Tal Kazal and
the area , will reveal the truth, end doubts, and allow the
determination of the real site of old Simira .
Reference books :
Syrian expedition Chicago university .
study of Homs
gap Talman .
Phoenician expedition Earnest Rynan / 1860 / .
about / 4 km / far from Tabet Alhamam and / 1 km / far from Samerian
village which gave it its name .
It has an
elliptical form , and it spreads about / 200 m / from south to North and
/ 150 m / from East to West . Its peak is covered by an Arabic
cemetery.Its layers contain residental stages which appear clearly and
go back to the Bronze Age / Old Middle / , and Byzantium and Hellenist
It is to
the West of Tal Kazal . It is thought to be the port of Simira city
where boats were reaching it.But the silts of Al-Abrash river ,
Samerian river , Albared river , and the Great river , led to the
decline of the sea . It is over topped by an Islamic cemetery , and , on
its versant , there is a Mameluke wall.
, the archaeologist , had frequented the area in / 1987 / , and made an
exploration making use of a hole resulted by the transportation of soil
. His work was in the ( 2nd 3rd ) old bronze
layers / 2800 2600 B.C / .
Consequently , he reached the base level of the land and got a good
fictile group which is kept in Tartous museum .
northern half of the dig area , a semi-circular storehouse , which goes
back to the ( 1st 2nd ) Mid bronze age , had been found . Whereas ,
in the other half , a strate-graphy hierarchy had been found , and
spreads from the 2nd Mid-Bronze Age to the 3rd old
Bronze Age .
8.15 m ) levels of ashes and red soil from the 3rd Old Bronze
- ( 8.18
9.80 / 985 m ) . The levels of the 4th Old Bronze Age .
- ( 9.80
10.20 / 10.40 m ) The levels of the 1st Mid Bronze Age .
Reference books :
- The study of Homs
gap Talman .
Amrit The coins
Amrit Hill The Rock
Vaults Al-Buzzak Tower Al-Buzzak
Tower Rom Al-Zaha The Port
Tabet Alhamam Samerian
Art in Amrit
Tal al kazal