Syria the cradle of civilizations

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History of Syria

General information about Syria

Damascus Ma'loula


Homs Palmyra

Hama Apamea

Sweida shahba

Daraa Bosra

Latakia Ugarit

Tartous Amrit

Deir Ezzor Mari





Since the first light of history, Syria has been a crossroads of civilization  and  the cradle of civilizations  
Syria has represented and bridged the cultures of Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and the outset of Silk Road connecting West with East
Syria was here in Mari and Ugarit , where AsSyrian, Sumerian, Phoenician, Babylonian, Egyptian, Greek and Roman empires and cultures met and Interactioned
 In Syria, Man discovered the mysteries of Agriculture, Metallurgy, and contrived the foremost alphabet

Religions, philosophies, language of trade, systems of urban development; all were developed in the Ancient geographical Syria.

Damascus, the capital of Syria, is the world's oldest continuously inhabited city and was the major eastern political and cultural center of Roman empire in the times of prophet Jesus (pbuh). St. Paul underwent his conversion to Christianity "On the road to Damascus".

Syria has stunning natural scenery, rugged mountains, deserts, beautiful swimming beaches, green valleys, and mountain peaks; perpetually covered with snow.

Throughout Syria there are magnificent ancient ruins, Medieval castles and fortresses, and wonderful Islamic mosques.


You are here in Syria where history's voice can be heard, where the soil holds the imprints of the world's oldest civilizations, some dating back to the fourth millenium BC. The names of sites evoke the story of mankind at its beginnings: Mari, Ebla, Ugarit, Amrit, Apamea, Doura-Europos, Palmyra, Bosra, Damascus, Aleppo, Hama, Latakia



Agriculture first appeared in Syria thousands of years ago, when man discovered the possibility of growing hundreds of new plants from seed. This discovery made it possible for civilization, as we know it, to begin. Men abandoned their caves and began building houses, and establishing settled communities. They embarked on journeys of self-discovery, observing the heavens and singing the earliest-known hymns. They tried their hand at painting and sculpture.

In ancient Syria, the secrets of metallurgy were also discovered, the possibility of hammering bronze and copper into shapes that would serve domestic, military and aesthetic uses. in Syria At Mari (Tel Hariri) were found numerous palaces, temples and murals reflecting advanced cultural and commercial activity. The kingdom of Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria , offered mankind its first alphabet.  and in Syria At Ebla (Tel Merdikh), a royal palace was discovered containing one of the largest and most comprehensive archives of the ancient world, dealing with matters of industry, diplomacy, trade, art and agriculture.

Ebla's power spread from the Anatolian mountains in the north to Sinai in the south. It became world-famous for two industries- the manufacture of silk cloth of gold, and that of finely-Carved wood, inlaid with ivory and mother of pearls. Today these industries still prosper, with Syrian brocade and mosaics fashioned according to the artisanal tradition of ancient Ebla. Syria was the theatre for many conquests, that descended from the Anatolian mountains or arrived t its shores from the sea. syrian original inhabitants, migrants from the Arabian Peninsula, settled throughout Syria, in the Fertile Crescent, and on the Palestinian coastline and the Sinai desert. They were known as the Akkadians, the Amorites, the Canaanite, the Phoenicians, the Arameans or the Ghassanids, depending on the time of their migration and the place of their settlement.

These settlers preserved their original characteristics despite the numerous conquests (Greek, Roman, Persian among others) which they were to experience. In 636 AD, when Muslim Arab tribes entered Syria from that same Arabian Peninsula that had given it its original inhabitants, they brought with them their language, Arabic, and their religion, Islam, both of which endure in modern Syria today.

more about Syria 


Umayyad Caliphate

Succeeding Caliphates and Kingdoms

Syrian emperors of Rome



Umayyad Caliphate

Ottoman Empire


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read more about Syria 

Succeeding Caliphates and Kingdoms

Syrian emperors of Rome

Ancient Syria

Muslim empires

Umayyad Caliphate

Ottoman Empire


Syria: Sun, Sand and Syria






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