Home

Contact

Syria 

 

 

 

 

 

Shipping  |  Order form  wholesale  Special order    how to order

         

Handmade

Laurel Soap

Handmade
Damascus Swords
Hookah Shisha
Jewelry
Handmade
Glass
Brass
Handmade
Fabric-Textile
Handicrafts
Handmade
Mosaic-stone
Mosaic-wood
Kashani-pottery
Handmade
Lamps
Furniture
Interior decors
 

 

Add A Review

Set As Homepage

Add To Favorites

History of Syria

General information

Damascus Ma'loula

Aleppo

Homs Palmyra

Hama Apamea

Sweida shahba

Daraa Bosra

Latakia Ugarit

Tartous Amrit

Deir Ezzor Mari

 

 

 

www.Syriangate.com

 

 

 Umayyad Caliphate

After Ali's murder in 661, Muawiyah--the governor of Syria during the early Arab conquests, a kinsman of Uthman, and a member of the Quraysh lineage of the Prophet--proclaimed himself caliph and established his capital in Damascus. From there he conquered Muslim enemies to the east, south, and west and fought the Byzantines to the north. Muawiyah is considered the architect of the Islamic empire and a political genius. Under his governorship Syria became the most prosperous province of the caliphate. Muawiyah created a professional army and, although rigorous in training them, won the undying loyalty of his troops for his generous and regularly paid salaries. Heir to Syrian shipyards built by the Byzantines, he established the caliphate's first navy. He also conceived and established an efficient government, including a comptroller of finance and a postal system.

 

 

Muawiyah cultivated the goodwill of Christian Syrians by recruiting them for the army at double pay, by appointing Christians to many high offices, and by appointing his son by his Christian wife as his successor. His sensitivity to human behavior accounted in great part for his political success. The modern Syrian image of Muawiyah is that of a man with enormous amounts of hilm, a combination of magnanimity, tolerance, and self-discipline, and of duha, political expertise-- qualities Syrians continue to expect of their leaders. By 732 the dynasty he founded had conquered Spain and Tours in France and stretched east to Samarkand and Kabul, far exceeding the greatest boundaries of the Roman Empire .Thus, Damascus achieved a glory unrivaled among cities of the eighth century.

The Umayyad Muslims established a military government in Syria and used the country primarily as a base of operations. They lived aloof from the people and at first made little effort to convert Christians to Islam. The Umayyads administered the lands in the manner of the Byzantines, giving complete authority to provincial governors.

 

 

In the administration of law, the Umayyads followed the traditions set by the Hellenistic monarchies and the Roman Empire. The conqueror's law--in this case Muslim law (sharia)-- applied only to those of the same faith or nationality as the conquerors. For non-Muslims, civil law was the law of their particular millet (separate religious community, also called milla); religious leaders administered the law of the millet. This system prevailed throughout Islam and has survived in Syria's legal codes.

During the 89 years of Umayyad rule, most Syrians became Muslims, and the Arabic language replaced Aramaic. The Umayyads minted coins, built hospitals, and constructed underground canals to bring water to the towns. The country prospered both economically and intellectually. Foreign trade expanded, and educated Jews and Christians, many of them Greek, found employment in the caliphal courts, where they studied and practiced medicine, alchemy, and philosophy.

 

 

handmade Laurel Soap | handmade Damascus Swords | handmade Hookah Shisha | handmad  Jewelry

| handmade Glass  handmade Brass  |  handmade Fabric-Textile  handmade Handicrafts  |  

handmade Lamps  |  handmade Mosaic-stone   |  handmade Mosaic-wood  |  handmade Furniture  | 

handmade Kashani-pottery  |  handmade Interior decors

 

Hand made gilded and

silvered hookah

 

Furnitures

mother- of- pearl inlay

and mosaic

 

Hand made  glass cups-

lamps -cutleries

 

Traditional hand made

 brass lamps

 

kashani

Syrian hand made

 notorious pottery

 

Laurel soap

with olive oil

natural 100%

 

Fabric -textile Damascene

natural silk

 

Join our mailing list!


Stay informed of new products
 

Email address

 

Recommend us to a friend

 

read more about Syria 

Succeeding Caliphates and Kingdoms

Syrian emperors of Rome

Ancient Syria

Muslim empires

Umayyad Caliphate

Ottoman Empire

 

 

 

 

Copyright 2003-2010 syriangate.com. All Rights Reserved.